Stansfield, C. W. (2011). Oral translation as a test accommodation for ELLs. Language Testing, 28(3), 401-416.
摘要：The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act (US Government, 2001), the current iteration of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, makes it clear that states, districts, schools and teachers are accountable for the education of English language learners (ELLs), as well as all other students. To implement an accountability system, NCLB requires states to create content standards (a set of curricular goals and objectives) for English language arts, mathematics, and science. They must also develop and administer assessments that measure student progress toward mastery of these content standards. Finally, states, districts, and schools must demonstrate that they are making adequate yearly progress toward bringing all students to a previously established level of mastery of these standards (called Proficient) with the goal that by the year 2014 all students will achieve this level. [Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications, Ltd., copyright holder.]
关键词：applied linguistics, language testing and assessment, Educational Policy, Language Tests, Achievement Tests, English as a Second Language, Translation, Language Arts, English Proficiency